Ronnie's Electrical Notes
    The author is a licensed master electrician, an electronics technician, owner and operator of an electrical contracting business, and a self-published author. Ronnie began his electrical and electronics career in the sixties during the tail end of the Vietnam War. When he graduated from high school, he began attending an electronics trade school in Detroit, Michigan. This was during the Detroit riots, and Ronnie still talks about living in Detroit during those troubled times. He later joined the United States Air Force where they put his electronics education to good use. Ronnie joined the military at a time when they were moving from vacuum tube technology into the age of the transistor. He trained in both vacuum tubes and solid-state electronics, so he could easily work with any of the high technology equipment the engineers and contractors supplied to the military for electronic radar equipment, and for identification of friendly aircraft in the skies. Many of the older electronic technicians in the military were struggling with the new solid-state electronics, so the military put his skills to use training those technicians to work with the new solid-state devices. 
    Ronnie's Electrical Notes gives simple easy to use steps that you can use to troubleshoot, or simply use to gain an understanding of some of the complex devices and technologies used in the electrical and electronics industry. The author wrote each article in the notebook in very simple easy to understand language that we all can understand. No complicated mathematics to memorize, just down to earth facts that you will want to have in your toolbox for everyday use. The notes in this notebook are right out of Ronnie's notebook that he carried in his traveling tool case whenever he was working on the road.
    Ronnie Coleinger 
    An Excerpt - Resistor Color Code
    The information in this chart has not changed since the beginning of my electrical career. I have it in my notebook for easy reference in times of extreme stress. Those times occur when you are at a customerís jobsite and need to replace a resistor in their copy machine, but cannot remember the color code. The owner has one of his employees standing beside you, waiting for you to write down the information so he can drive to the local Radio Shack store and purchase the required resistor. It is in those times that a mind seems to go blank on something as simple as a resistor color code. Therefore, here is the information in my notebook, to save your ass from embarrassment in your time of need. Arenít you lucky you purchased this notebook? 
    An Excerpt - Sinking and Sourcing
    Do You Feel Confused? I have trained many electronics technicians and electricians how to wire and work with direct current sensors and programmable logic controller inputs and outputs. Here is what I have learned over the years that may help you the next time you get confused.
    When working with direct current sensors, remember the saying, ìMr. Brown is always positive.î That saying is always in the back of my mind and is an important saying to memorize. When you begin wiring any sensor, remember that the brown wire always connects to positive power, the blue wire always connects to negative power, the black wire is the normally open lead, and the white wire is the normally closed lead.  
    Direct current sensors and component amplifiers use a transistor for their output switch. There are three output configurations presently used in the industry, they are:
    Open collector NPN transistor - current sinking.
    Open collector PNP transistor - current sourcing.
    Isolated NPN - current sinking or sourcing
    Current sinking outputs switch ground (DC common). The load connects between the sensor output and the positive supply voltage.
    Current sourcing outputs switch positive DC to the load. The load connects between the sensor output and the negative supply voltage.
    Ronnie Coleinger